“On Gesimas, the Transfiguration, and Grace” (February 26, 2017: The Last Sunday after the Epiphany: Quinquagesima)

Posted in Sermons with tags , , , , , , , , on March 9, 2017 by montgomerybrandt

This sermon was originally prepared to be preached at the Episcopal Church of the Ascension in Lafayette, Louisiana on Sunday, February 26, 2017, being the Last Sunday after the Epiphany: Quinquagesima. As a result of human imperfection and misreading the clergy preaching rota, I ended up not preaching the sermon that follows. I offer it in the spirit of putting forth what I would have said had I, indeed, been the day’s preacher.

Readings: Exodus 24.12-18; Psalm 2, 2 Peter 1.16-21; Matthew 17.1-9

Collect: O God, who before the passion of Your only begotten Son revealed His glory upon the holy mountain: Grant to us that we, beholding by faith the light of His countenance, may be strengthened to bear our cross, and be changed into His likeness from glory to glory; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with You and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen. 

“And as they were coming down the mountain, Jesus commanded them, ‘Tell no one the vision, until the Son of Man is raised from the dead.’’”—Matthew 17.9[1]

In the Name of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

 In the pre-1979 Prayer Book days, today, the Last Sunday after the Epiphany, and the two preceding were known as the “Gesima” Sundays, today being “Quinquagesima,” meaning “about 50 days,” the previous being “Sexagesima,” “about 60 days,” and the one before that “Septuagesima,” “about 70 days.”  Their purpose was two-fold.  First, functioning as a transition period from the Epiphany season and beginning the countdown to Easter, the Gesimas put the faithful on notice: Lent is coming!  As today is the last of the Gesimas, Lent begins this Wednesday.

Second, the Gesimas, by way of the lectionary, were a corporate catechesis on God’s grace.  They examined grace from specific perspectives: grace undeserved, grace passively received, and grace not easily understood.[2]  With Lent being a penitential season, the Gesimas were a reassurance to the faithful that there is grace and that it was coming.  “For His anger is but for a moment, and His favor is for a lifetime.  Weeping may tarry for the night, but joy comes with the morning.”[3] 

 There have been some joyous events these last few weeks—the birth of Jesus, His naming and circumcision, the first Gentiles to find Him, and His baptism.  But a change is coming, one already present amid the joy.[4]

 

+               +               +

In today’s Gospel

Three of them saw that glory.  Jesus took Peter and the brothers, James and John, and led them up a high mountain.  His appearance changed from the inside out, right before their eyes.  Sunlight poured from His face.  His clothes were filled with light.  Then they realized that Moses and Elijah were also there in deep conversation with Him.[5]

The Transfiguration of Christ is nothing short of amazing.  Jesus’ humanity and divinity were on full display.  What Peter, James, and John were witnessing on that high mountain was the glory of the Holy Trinity: God the Father’s voice, God the Son’s face, and God the Holy Ghost in the light.  “The disciples…fell on their faces and were terrified.”  I would be, too.

In one single moment, Jesus’ entire past, present, and future came together.  Moses and Elijah, representing the Old Testament Prophets and the Law, reflected Jesus’ past.  “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets,” Jesus said.  “I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them.”[6]  But Jesus’ past extends further back beyond Elijah and Moses.  “I will put enmity between you and the woman,” God said to the serpent in Genesis, “between your offspring and her offspring; He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel.”[7]  And even further back than that: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.”[8]  Jesus Christ is the Word that is the same yesterday, today, and forever.

Within Jesus’ past was also His future.  “Moses and Elijah…were in deep conversation with Him.”[9]  They are talking about His Passion, all that Jesus must suffer and endure in Jerusalem.  In this is also our future.  “The saying is trustworthy and deserving of full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners.”[10]

For Jesus, His suffering on the cross was no matter of force, but a voluntary and willing submission to His Father’s will.  The Transfiguration reveals Jesus, who is without sin, choosing to suffer for the redemption of sinners.[11]  “And a voice from the cloud said, ‘This is My beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased; listen to Him.’”  God makes it pretty clear: Jesus is in charge and we, who are sinful, are to do everything that He, who is sinless, says.

+               +               +

“And Peter said to Jesus, ‘Lord, it is good that we are here.  If you wish, I will make three tents here, one for You and one for Moses and one for Elijah.’”  Peter’s wanting to stay on the mountaintop is understandable.  What he, James, and John saw there was the glory of God in its complete fullness.  To use the words of the late great Johnny Mercer, it was “just too marvelous, too marvelous for words.”  Peter wanted this mountaintop experience to last and never change.  But, alas, that could not be.  They had to descend from the mountain.  “And as they were coming down the mountain, Jesus commanded them, ‘Tell no one the vision, until the Son is raised from the dead.’”

That is where we see God’s grace, coming, yet already present.  The grace of God is an energetic force that cannot be contained in a tent, or a box, or in any other particular place.  What Peter, James, John, all the other Apostles, and all of us will soon see is that the fullness of God’s grace will come through sacrifice.  Jesus looks through death to the certainty of the resurrection.  His resurrection from death will be His (and our) ultimate triumph.[12]  We cannot experience the joy of the resurrection without first going through the darkness of Christ’s crucifixion.[13]  When we do, God’s glory will “do far more abundantly than all that we ask or think.”[14]

So on this final Sunday before Lent, the Good News we see in the Transfiguration, in Christ’s dazzling white light, is that there is grace and it is coming.  “I am the light of the world,” Jesus says.  “Whoever follows me will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.”[15]  “Rise, and have no fear.’  And when they lifted up their eyes, they saw no one but Jesus only.”  Jesus Christ is the Savior of all.  By His cross and precious blood He will redeem us and bring to us grace and life forever.

Alleluia!  Grace is coming!  Alleluia!  Grace is here!

In the Name of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

[1] Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations contained herein are from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® (ESV®), Copyright © 2001 by Crossway, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

[2] “Lent & the ‘Gesima’ Season” (http://www.historiclectionary.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/GesimaInsert.pdf).  Web.  February 14, 2017.

[3] Psalm 30.5

[4] Paul T. McCain.  “What’s a Gesima?  The Church Prepares for Lent.” First Things.  Institute on Religion and Public Life, January 31, 2010.  Web.  February 15, 2017.

[5] The Message: The Bible in Contemporary Language (NavPress, 2005).

[6] Matthew 5.17

[7] Genesis 3.15

[8] John 1.1

[9] The Message: The Bible in Contemporary Language

[10] 1 Timothy 1.15

[11] Norval Geldenhuys.  Commentary on the Gospel of Luke (William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1979), 281.

[12] Leon Morris.  The Gospel According to Matthew (William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1999), 442.

[13] Stan G. Duncan.  If You Lived Here You’d Be Home By Now: Life and Faith and a Journey Home (Lulu Enterprises, 2006), x.

[14] Ephesians 3.20

[15] John 8.12

“What’s It Gonna Be?” (February 12, 2017: The Sixth Sunday after the Epiphany–Septuagesima)

Posted in Sermons with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on February 13, 2017 by montgomerybrandt

The following sermon was preached on February 12, 2017, being the Sixth Sunday after the Epiphany (Septuagesima), at the 10:30am principal Eucharist at Saint Andrew’s Episcopal Church in Montevallo, Alabama.

Collect: O God, the strength of all who put their trust in You: Mercifully accept our prayers; and because in our weakness we can do nothing good without You, give us the help of Your grace, that in keeping Your commandments we may please You both in will and deed; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with You and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.

Readings: Deuteronomy 30.15-20; Psalm 119.1-8; 1 Corinthians 3.1-9; Matthew 5.21-37

“Let your word be ‘Yes, Yes’ or ‘No, No’; anything more than this comes from the evil one.”—Matthew 5.37[1]

In the Name of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

 I would like to express my appreciation to your Priest-in-Charge for his invitation to preach the Gospel and concelebrate the Eucharist with him here at Saint Andrew’s this post—College Night Sunday.  While I always relish the opportunity to come back to Montevallo, this current visit has been particularly meaningful on two fronts.  First, this year’s Homecoming marked my 10th anniversary as a graduate of the University and brought back wonderful memories from when I myself had the honor of presiding over College Night as Student Government Association president.  It was also during my years at Montevallo that I attended Sunday services here at Saint Andrew’s and had the privilege of residing in the previous Canterbury House, which helped establish the bonds of affection that I share with many of you here.

Second, this visit has provided an opportunity for me to serve with your Priest-in-Charge—one of my first parishioners at Canterbury Chapel in Tuscaloosa when I was first ordained 4½ years ago—for the first time as an ordained colleague.  I have great respect for him and Colleen and pray that their ministry among you, to use the words of the University’s alma mater, will be “years…rich and fruitful.”[2]

This weekend has been a time during which many things have come “full circle.”  It has brought to mind the words of the Psalmist, “Ecce quam bonum et quam iucundum habitare fratres in unum” (“Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell in unity”).[3]

+               +               +

 “What’s it gonna be: life and good or death and evil?”: that is the question today’s lessons present us.  We are being entreated to

Obey the commandments of the LORD…by loving the LORD your God, walking in His ways, and observing His commandments, decrees, and ordinances…Choose life so that you and your descendants may live.[4]

We are urged to choose God because He Himself is life and good.  “Hope in the LORD,” says the Psalmist, “for with the LORD there is steadfast love, and with Him is great power to redeem.”[5] 

The law, which comes from God, reflects His goodness.

The law of the LORD is perfect, reviving the soul; the decrees of the LORD are sure, making wise the simple; the precepts of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart; the commandment of the LORD is clear, enlightening the eyes…The ordinances of the LORD are true and righteous altogether.[6]

The law furthermore points us to Christ, God’s Word in the flesh.  “The law was our disciplinarian until Christ came, so that we might be justified by faith.”[7]  And Christ came “that they may have life, and have it abundantly.”[8]  Here, too, we see a full-circle effect: God’s law, Jesus Christ, and life and goodness bound together.  They are meant to make life rich, full, and productive—as God intended.[9]

Though the law is good because it comes from God, it is also hard because of the same reason.  Saint Paul, in his letter to the Romans, talks about the struggle

I find it to be a law that when I want to do what is good, evil lies close at hand.  For I delight in the law of God in my inmost self, but I see in my members another law at war with the law of my mind, making me captive to the law of sin that dwells in my members…So then, with my mind I am a slave to the law of God, but with my flesh I am a slave to the law of sin.[10]

And Jesus, in today’s Gospel, does not let up.  Instead of toning things down, He ratchets things up.  “You have heard in the past, ‘Do not commit murder.’  But now I tell you: do not be angry.  You have heard that it was said, ‘Do not commit adultery.’  But now I tell you: do not lust.  You have also heard in the past, ‘Do not break your promise.’  But now I tell you: do not swear at all.”  What we get today is Jesus not meek and mild, but heavy hitting.  “Do not think that I have come to abolish the law,” Jesus said.[11]  He was not kidding!

If Jesus’ words come across as extreme and severe, then you are right.  Today’s Gospel is a real pounding, Jesus bringing down the hammer again and again and again.  It’s as if Jesus is attacking us with merciless mandates.  It makes you think, “If this is the way it is going to be, then why am I still here? Why should I stick around?  Jesus, you are killing me here!  It is just too hard!”

But think about it, though.  Consider, again, what Jesus is saying.  “Do not be angry.  Do not lust.  Do not swear.”  If all of that were to actually be practiced, how lovely would it be?  How lovely would it be if communities like Montevallo, Alabama, Lafayette, Louisiana, and all others became places whose people were all seriously committed to reconciliation?  There would not be the need for “fronts”: “Let your word be ‘Yes, Yes’ or ‘No, No’; anything more than this comes from the evil one.”  “Thy kingdom come, thy will be done, on earth as it is in Heaven…Forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us,” we always pray.  How lovely would it be if it was more so?

Louis Armstrong, one of the most pivotal and influential figures of American jazz, in 1966, recorded the now universally known hit song “What a Wonderful World.”  While introducing the song at a concert in 1970, he said this

Some of you young folks been saying to me, “Hey Pops, what you mean, ‘What a wonderful world?’  How about all them wars all over the place?  You call them wonderful?  And how about hunger and pollution?  That ain’t so wonderful, either.”

Well, how about listening to old Pops for a minute.  Seems to me, it ain’t the world that’s so bad but what we’re doing to it.  And all I’m saying is, see, what a wonderful world it would be if only we’d give it a chance.  Love, baby, love.  That’s the secret, yeah.  If lots more of us loved each other, we’d solve lots more problems.  And then this world would be better.  That’s wha’ ol’ Pops keeps saying.

This is what Jesus is inviting us into.  With Jesus today imploring us to not be angry, lustful, and swear, we are being invited into life and good, not evil and certain death.  We “have been chosen and destined by God the Father and sanctified by the Spirit to be obedient to Jesus Christ and to be sprinkled with His blood.”[12]  That is the Good News we are today being given.

The more time we spend with Jesus, the more we’ll view Him and His mandates not as harsh, extreme, or inconceivable, but beautiful, inviting, and life-giving.  The more we see Jesus’ mandates for what they truly are, the more our desire will be to strive to live them out.  In Jesus’ mandates is “the truth, and the truth will make you free.”[13]  In Jesus Christ is life and He Himself is the Light of all people.[14]  For me, I cannot have it any other way.  Give me Jesus!

“What if I fail?” you may ask.  I’ll let the Good News speak for itself.

Come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.[15]

For God so loved the world that He gave His only Son, so that everyone who believes in Him may not perish but may have eternal life.[16]

The saying is sure and worthy of full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners.[17]

If anyone does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; and He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.[18]

Have no fear!  “With the LORD there is steadfast love, and with Him is great power to redeem.”[19]  That truly is good news!

So, what’s it gonna be: life and good or death and evil?  Choose life that you may live.  Choose Jesus!  That is the best victory anybody can ever receive.

In the Name of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

[1] Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations contained herein are from the New Revised Standard Version Bible, copyright © 1989 by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America.

[2] Virginia Powell Figh and Lucy Lynn Underwood, Alma Mater of the University of Montevallo (Montevallo, Alabama)

[3] Psalm 132.1 (133.1) (Latin Vulgate)

[4] Deuteronomy 30.16, 19

[5] Psalm 130.7

[6] Psalm 19.7-8, 9b

[7] Galatians 3.24

[8] John 10.10b

[9] Footnote on Deuteronomy 30.20, The NIV Study Bible (Zondervan, 2011), 299.

[10] Romans 7.21-23, 25b

[11] Matthew 5.17

[12] 1 Peter 1.2

[13] John 8.32

[14] John 1.4

[15] Matthew 11.28

[16] John 3.16

[17] 1 Timothy 1.15

[18] 1 John 2.1-2

[19] Psalm 130.7

“My Lord and My God!” (December 21, 2016: Feast of Saint Thomas the Apostle)

Posted in Sermons on December 22, 2016 by montgomerybrandt

The following sermon was preached at the 6:00pm Healing Eucharist on December 21, 2016, being the Feast of Saint Thomas the Apostle, at the Episcopal Church of the Ascension in Lafayette, Louisiana.

Collect: Everliving God, who strengthened Your apostle Thomas with firm and certain faith in Your Son’s resurrection: Grant us so perfectly and without doubt to believe in Jesus Christ, our Lord and our God, that our faith may never be found wanting in Your sight; through Him who lives and reigns with You and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Reading: John 20.24-29

“Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.”—John 20.29[1]

In the Name of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

Directly above the High Altar at New York City’s Saint Thomas Church Fifth Avenue is a sculptural depiction of today’s Gospel.  In it are representations of each essential character: the Apostles to whom Jesus appeared on Easter, Thomas, and Jesus Himself.  All of the Apostles, except Thomas, are fully visible, five on both the right and left sides.  In the center is Thomas, somewhat seen, yet partially hidden in the dark, kneeling before the risen Christ.  What makes this depiction so emotional is seeing the right hand of the partially hidden Thomas extended out and raised up in clear view toward the fully visible risen Christ.  It is an artistic rendering of Thomas’s elation: “My Lord and my God!”

There are two other times, apart from today’s Gospel, all from that of Saint John, that we specifically hear from Saint Thomas.  First, when Jesus announces to the Apostles His intent to go back to Bethany to resurrect His friend Lazarus, whereas the majority say, “Rabbi, the Jews were just now seeking to stone you, and are you going there again?” it is Thomas who says, “Let us also go, that we may die with Him,” signaling a high level of courageous devotion.[2]  Next, during the Last Supper, when Jesus says that He is going away, Thomas objects, saying, “Lord, we do not know where you are going.  How can we know the way?”[3]  But it is today’s Gospel for which Thomas is most well-known, for doubting his fellow Apostles’ claim to having seen Jesus in fullness of body and divinity raised from death, only to believe them upon seeing Jesus risen with his very own eyes.

Thomas’s moniker, “Doubting Thomas,” is, in my view, quite unfortunate, in that he has oftentimes been unfairly criticized for expressing a genuine human emotion, as if in his doubt he was denying Jesus’ very existence.  It was not Jesus Himself who Thomas was doubting, but rather his fellow Apostles’ intense insistence to having seen Jesus, dead just three days earlier, again in clear sight, raised and alive.  “Thomas was not with them when Jesus [first] came.  So the other disciples told him, ‘We have seen the Lord.’”  To question such a breach of natural law, seeing a man once dead again completely alive, begs some understanding, especially considering Thomas’s absence from the Apostles that first Easter Day.

What is Thomas’s response?  Until I have seen in His hands the print of the nails, and put my finger in the mark of the nails and my hand into His side, I will not believe.”[4]  It is that first word, “until,” that is crucial and conveys much.  Though he doubts his fellow Apostles’ assertion, Thomas is also open to the possibility that it may actually be true.  For three years, Thomas walked with Jesus, saw Him perform marvelous miracles, conveying hope in the midst of despair, and loved Him.  Thomas is grieving that the Teacher he loved so much was taken away, killed, and, in his mind, is gone forever.  Yet his openness to the possible truth of the Apostles’ witness signifies the yearning Thomas still has for Jesus, a small glimmer of hope that maybe, just maybe, they are right and all is not lost.

It is in that glimmer of hope in the midst of doubt that Jesus comes to Thomas.  “Put your finger here, and see My hands,” Jesus says, “and put out your hand, and place it in My side.  Do not disbelieve, but believe.”  Caravaggio’s early 17th century painting The Incredulity of Saint Thomas has the Apostle graphically inserting his index finger into the gaping wound on Jesus’ side.  Yet today’s Gospel does not say that Thomas actually does this.  From the way that it reads, for Thomas, just the sight of Jesus Himself is enough: “My Lord and my God!”  What Jesus next says not only proved pivotal for Thomas in that current moment, but for all others yet to come: “Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.”

Going back to that sculptural depiction above the High Altar at Saint Thomas Church, New York, I cannot help thinking that the sculptor[5], in the representation of the parish’s patron, was making a particular artistic point.  It is as if the partially hidden Thomas, with only his right hand extended out and raised up in clear view to the risen Christ, not only represents himself, but all people who hope in the midst of doubt.  It recognizes doubt as a legitimate human emotion that all of us have suffered (or will suffer) at one point or another, that it is nothing for which we should feel ashamed.  The risen Christ, in clear view for all to see, communicates the Gospel truth, that in our seeking of and openness to receiving the Truth, Jesus comes.  And when Jesus comes, we become changed, a new creation; the old passes away, the new enters in.[6]  Saint Thomas’s song becomes our own song: “My Lord and my God!”

With December 21 every year being Saint Thomas’s feast day, you will notice that it occurs during the latter days of Advent, four days before the celebration of Jesus’ birth at Christmas.  To celebrate this feast during this time helps reinforce the message and hope conveyed in Advent

“There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a branch from his roots shall bear fruit.  And the Spirit of the LORD shall rest upon Him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD.  And His delight shall be in the fear of the LORD.  He shall not judge by what His eyes see, or decide disputes by what His ears hear, but with righteousness He shall judge the poor, and decide with equity for the meek of the earth.”[7]

Because of Saint Thomas, we can have courage to hold fast to our hope. He helps confirm that we have no reason to fear.  He helps to show that the Word of God is, indeed, true.  Jesus Christ is coming, coming to save you and to save me.  “Do not disbelieve, but believe…Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.”

In the Name of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

[1] Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations contained herein are from the ESV® Bible (The Holy Bible, English Standard Version®), copyright © 2001 by Crossway, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

[2] John 11.1-16

[3] John 14:1-7

[4] The New Community Bible, copyright © 2008 by the Bombay Saint Paul Society.

[5] Lee Oscar Lawrie (1877-1963), one of America’s foremost architectural sculptors of the first half of the 20th century.

[6] 2 Corinthians 5.17

[7] Isaiah 11.2-4.

“Jesus Christ: Died, Risen, Coming Again” (November 27, 2016: First Sunday of Advent–Year A)

Posted in Sermons with tags , , , , , , , on November 28, 2016 by montgomerybrandt

This sermon was preached at the 6:00pm Rite I Eucharist on November 27, 2016, being the First Sunday of Advent, and the fourth anniversary of my ordination as a Priest, at the Episcopal Church of the Ascension in Lafayette, Louisiana.

Collect: Almighty God, give us grace that we may cast away the works of darkness, and put upon us the armor of light, now in the time of this mortal life in which Thy Son Jesus Christ came to visit us in great humility; that in the last day, when He shall come again in His glorious majesty to judge both the quick and the dead, we may rise to the life immortal; through Him who liveth and reigneth with Thee and the Holy Ghost, one God, now and for ever. Amen.

Readings: Isaiah 2.1-5; Psalm 122; Romans 13.11-14; Matthew 24.36-44

“Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of Man cometh.”—Matthew 24.44[1]

In the Name of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

Happy New Year!  We have, once again, come to Advent, the first season of the Christian liturgical year.  The word “Advent” comes from the Latin adventus, meaning “arrival” or “approach.”  The Advent season has a twofold purpose: first, to be a time of preparation for the Solemnities of Christmas, in which the First Coming of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, to humanity is remembered,[2] and second, by remembrance of the first, to prepare us for His Second Coming, when “He shall come again, with glory, to judge both the quick and the dead; whose Kingdom shall have no end.”[3]  In Advent is first seen the Mystery of Faith: “Christ has died, Christ is risen, Christ will come again.”

We see the Mystery of Faith first illustrated in Scripture, particularly in the 20th chapter of Saint John’s Gospel.  “Doubting” Saint Thomas, the one absent from Jesus’ first post-resurrection appearance to His Apostles, says, “Except I shall see in His hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into His side, I will not believe.”   A week passes and Jesus appears again to His Apostles, including Thomas: “Peace be unto you.”  Thomas sees the risen Christ and no longer doubts: “My Lord and my God!”  Jesus says to Thomas, “Because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.”[4]

What Jesus says, Saint Thomas helps Him illustrate and confirm: The Son of Man IS coming again in power and kingly glory.  In one sense, we see this already having been fulfilled, for Jesus, by revealing Himself to Thomas, showed Himself as having died, risen in fullness of Body and Divinity, and come back.  But, in another sense, there is still waiting, for the Good News of Christ “shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations.”[5]  For all of us here on Earth still waiting, Saint John gives this assurance, “Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when He shall appear, we shall be like Him; for we shall see Him as He is.  And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as He is pure.”[6]

“Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come.”  As my mentor Priest, Father Andrew Mead, said in a recent email, “Time is short and eternity is long, pressing in upon us at any moment.  Today could be my last day on this earth, so I both need and want to hear the Good News of salvation in Jesus Christ.”[7]  The Good News that we are today being given is that Jesus, Earth’s Redeemer, is near.  “For He cometh, for He cometh to judge the earth: He shall judge the world with righteousness, and the people with His truth.”[8]  Jesus, our King and Savior, is drawing nigh!

Father Mead is right: today could be anyone’s last day on Earth.  Death can strike at any moment.  “Then two shall be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.  Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left.”  But even for them, those whom Death has already taken, will Jesus come.  “For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with Him.  For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep.”[9] 

But what about the meantime?  Exactly how are we supposed to “keep awake”?  By doing the things that Jesus commands.  “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind…And…thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.”[10]  How do we do that?  “Let us walk honestly, as in the day,” Saint Paul says, “not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying.  But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ.”[11]   

And why should we follow Jesus?  Because of what He did on the cross: He died for our sins!  Jesus, for every single one of us, died the most horrific death imaginable in order that we may be freed from sin.  And He took up His life again, triumphantly rising from the grave on the third day, so that through Him we may experience the joys of eternal life.  Therefore, we owe Jesus both our allegiance and obedience, for to put on Christ is to be able to withstand Satan’s wiles.[12]   

To be saved by Jesus is to be changed in the most positive of ways.  Our hearts become drawn to Him, our minds guided by Him, and our wills controlled by Him, all towards good things.  Because of Jesus, our new self yearns to be His vessel for the purpose of His greater glory, that we may show forth God’s love to our neighbor.  “If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love; even as I have kept my Father’s commandments, and abide in His love.  These things I have spoken unto you, that my joy might remain in you, and that your joy might be full.”[13] 

That is the mercy we have been granted in this meantime.  In being told to “keep awake,” not only does Jesus tell us that He will soon come again, but that He has also granted us the mercy of time.  We have been given the chance to conform our lives to God’s will, to love others as Christ loves us, and to do the things He would have us do.  As we live into and do those things, our salvation in Christ becomes even more meaningful.  Christian discipleship becomes a part of the very air we breathe.  And at the end, when Christ comes again, eternity in the Kingdom of God will be our reward.  “And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away.”[14] 

“Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come.  Therefore be ye…ready, for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of Man cometh.”  Both a warning and a sign of God’s love and mercy for us all.  May we all be ready for that Great Day when Jesus comes again.  “Amen.  Come, Lord Jesus!”[15]

Our King and Savior draweth nigh: O come, let us adore Him!  Amen.

[1] Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations contained herein are from the Authorized (King James) Version.

[2] Pope Paul VI, “Approval of the Universal Norms on the Liturgical Year and the New General Roman Calendar (February 14, 1969), ¶39.

[3] Nicene Creed.

[4] John 20.24-29

[5] Matthew 24.14

[6] I John 3.2-3

[7] Andrew C. Mead, email message to friends, family members, and clergy associates, November 11, 2016.

[8] Psalm 96.13

[9] I Thessalonians 4.14-15

[10] Matthew 22.37, 39

[11] Romans 13.13-14

[12] Ephesians 6.11

[13] John 15.10-11

[14] Revelation 21.4

[15] Revelation 22.20 (New Revised Standard Version)

“Jesus Christ, King of the Universe” (November 20, 2016: Solemnity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe–Year C)

Posted in Sermons with tags , , , , , on November 21, 2016 by montgomerybrandt

This sermon was preached at the 8:30am, 11:00am, and 6:00pm services on November 20, 2016, being the Solemnity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe, at the Episcopal Church of the Ascension in Lafayette, Louisiana.  

Collect: Almighty and everlasting God, whose will it is to restore all things in Your well-beloved Son, the King of kings and Lord of lords: Mercifully grant that the peoples of the earth, divided and enslaved by sin, may be freed and brought together under His most gracious rule; who lives and reigns with You and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Readings: Jeremiah 23.1-6; Canticle 16; Colossians 1.11-20; Luke 23.33-43

“Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise.”—Luke 23.43[1]

In the Name of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

Today, for Western Christians, is the Solemnity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe, known within Anglicanism as Christ the King Sunday, and serves as the concluding Sunday in the Western Christian liturgical calendar.  It is of Roman Catholic origin, established by Pope Pius XI in 1925 and came into observance within Protestantism during the late 20th century.

When Pius XI established this feast ninety-one years ago, secularism was on the rise, causing a number of Christians to doubt Christ’s authority, even His very existence.  And though much of the world has changed, much of it has remained the same, with secularism posing just as much a threat to Christian allegiance, perhaps more so now than ever.  Hence, we have the purpose for this day: to remind the faithful, as the liturgical year concludes, that Jesus Christ, at all times, must reign in our hearts, minds, wills, and bodies.  As the late pontiff himself said, “The faithful…by meditating upon these truths, will gain much strength and courage, enabling them to form their lives after the true Christian ideal.”[2]  That ideal is none other than Jesus Christ Himself, who is “the Alpha and the Omega…who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.”[3]

In his letter to the Colossians, Saint Paul summarizes in wonderful prose Christ’s Kingship

He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation; for in Him all things in Heaven and on Earth were created, things visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or powers—all things have been created through and for Him…He is the head of the body, the Church; He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead…For in Him all the fullness of God was pleased to dwell, and through Him God was pleased to reconcile to Himself all things, whether on Earth or in Heaven, by making peace through the blood of His cross.[4]

Hence, to conclude the liturgical year, today’s Gospel brings us back to Calvary, to the sight of our Lord being crucified.  “And the people stood by, watching…the leaders scoffed at Him, saying, ‘He saved others; let Him save Himself if He is the Messiah of God, His chosen One!”  Between Jesus are two criminals, one defiant, the other penitent.  “Are you not the Messiah?” the defiant criminal says.  “Save yourself and us!”  The penitent criminal rebukes back, “Do you not fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation?  We indeed have been condemned justly, for we are getting what we deserve…but this man has done nothing wrong.”  To Jesus, the penitent criminal pleads, “Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom.”  Hear what our Lord says: of the crowd, “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing”; to the penitent criminal, “Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise.” 

By being brought back to Calvary, we are reminded of the Good News, that Jesus Christ, this Man hanging on the cross, is none other than Almighty God in human flesh come to save us.  He is the One whom “God did not send…into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through Him.”[5]   Jesus is the God-Man whose love was first conveyed to the world through its very creation and by sacrificing Himself reconciled it all, once separated and enslaved by sin, back to Himself.  We end this liturgical year being reminded that the cross was what it was all about, for in the cross was shown the extent of God’s love for all people throughout all time, past, present, and yet to come.

Therefore, from the cross, Jesus Christ, giving Himself up to death so that we “may have life, and have it abundantly,” reigns as King.  He transformed what was an instrument of shame into the throne of grace, offering to His people the gift of His redemption.  That is why the cross is our symbol.  Because of Jesus, our great and glorious King, death has been conquered and the victory won.  Only He could accomplish such a mission.  “For our sake [God] made Him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in Him we might become the righteousness of God.”[6] 

So, for the sake of being perfectly clear, Jesus is King because Jesus is God, and because Jesus is God, only He and He alone is capable of redeeming all things.  His power is not harsh, exploitive, or fascist; it is kind, loving, welcoming, and redemptive.  “Come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.  Take my yoke upon you and learn from me; for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls.  For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.”[7]  That is the power of our Savior and King Jesus Christ, for from Him becomes imparted upon all who believe God’s power of salvation.[8]

Therefore, our desire should be in nothing and no one else except Jesus Christ.  Despite our sin, Christ our King proved His love for us by laying down His very life to save us.  He knew the cost of what it would take and willingly paid it.  Christ is the King who has saved and freed His people.

Now we, in turn, are being extended the chance to submit to Jesus’ most gracious rule, living as His ransomed, healed, restored, and forgiven people.  As we walk with Christ in faith, we experience more and more a truly liberated life.  “To grow up in every way into Him who is the head, into Christ”[9] is a lifetime’s journey.  But at the end, to die in the Lord makes it worth it, for then we will dwell with Christ our King in His great Paradise.

We end this liturgical year with Jesus, dying on a cross, promising not only to the penitent criminal, but to all penitent people, “Truly, I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise.”  Next Sunday, we begin another liturgical year looking for this same Jesus, raised back to life on the third day, in His Kingly glory, to come again: “Therefore, you…must be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an unexpected hour.”[10]  This begs the question, to which will you submit?  Will you submit to Christ, whose Word and saving power have been proven true, or to the ways of the world, “where moth and rust consume and thieves break in and steal?”[11]  I hope that all of us answers, “As for me and my household, we will serve the LORD.”[12]

The Lord has shown forth His glory: O come, let us adore Him!  Amen.

[1] All Scripture quotations contained herein are from the New Revised Standard Version Bible, copyright © 1989 by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America.

[2] Pope Pius XI, Quas primas (1925), ¶33.

[3] Revelation 1.8

[4] Colossians 1.15-20

[5] John 3.17

[6] II Corinthians 5.21

[7] Matthew 11.28-30

[8] Romans 1.16; I Corinthians 1.18

[9] Ephesians 4.15

[10] Matthew 24.44

[11] Matthew 6.19

[12] Joshua 24.15

“Chandler the Reverse Theologian” (September 14, 2016: Holy Cross Day)

Posted in Sermons with tags , , , , , , , , , on September 16, 2016 by montgomerybrandt

The full text of the sermon below was preached at the Wednesday 6:00pm Healing Eucharist on September 14, 2016, being the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, at the Episcopal Church of the Ascension in Lafayette, Louisiana.  An abridged version was preached earlier that day at the bi-weekly campus Eucharist at the Sugar Mill Pond Campus of Ascension Episcopal School in Youngsville, Louisiana.

Collect: Almighty God, whose Son our Savior Jesus Christ was lifted high upon the Cross that He might draw the whole world to Himself: Mercifully grant that we, who glory in the mystery of our redemption, may have grace to take up our cross and follow Him; who lives and reigns with You and the Holy Spirit, one God, in glory everlasting.  Amen.

Reading: John 12.31-36a

And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself.”—John 12.32[1]

 In the Name of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

One particular day a couple of weeks ago, after school had ended, I went out to catch a little bit of the football team’s practice, just wanting to see a little football and destress from all the doctoral papers, theology blog posts, and sermons that were still before me to complete.  While standing on the sidelines, some of the younger football players started asking me questions regarding what did and did not constitute a sin.  “Is this a sin?  Is that a sin?  If I did this, but not that, would that be a sin?”  And on, and on, and on, and on.  After about two minutes, Chandler Juneau, a current sophomore and one of the more theologically perceptive members of his class, chimed in, asking, “Father, did you sin before becoming a priest?”  Chandler’s question provided an excellent teaching opportunity.  “Yes,” I said.  “I did sin before becoming a priest.  I still am a sinner.  I am human, after all, just like everyone else and am not perfect.  But the Good News is that because of the Cross I am forgiven.  Because of Jesus, there is grace.  And thank God for grace!”

Today is the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, also known simply as Holy Cross Day.  It is one of the Church’s major feasts, its background being in the legend of the discovery of remnants of the True Cross, the very cross, according to Christian tradition, upon which Christ Himself was crucified, in 326 by Saint Helena, mother of the Roman Emperor Constantine, during her pilgrimage to Jerusalem.  The date for Holy Cross Day, September 14, marks the day in 335 that the True Cross was brought outside the Church of the Holy Sepulcher,[2] built over the discovery’s site and consecrated the day before, so that the Christian clergy and faithful could pray before and venerate it.  What we see in Holy Cross Day is the message of the Cross, the power of God to those being saved.[3]  What this day does is allow the Christian faithful an opportunity to commemorate Christ’s redeeming work on the Cross with a festal emphasis not appropriate for Good Friday.[4]

In asking about my sinful state before ordination, Chandler stepped into the role of what I would describe as a “reverse theologian,” in that he asked a spiritual question that could have been perceived as expecting an answer going totally against the norm, but, in actuality, was meant to bring out the actual truth.  That is because Chandler, I believe, accepts that same truth about himself as I do about my own self and all of us should, if we are totally honest.  All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.”[5]  And reflecting on Chandler’s question in the days since has brought me back to the Cross and to Jesus, whose death on that Cross allows me the grace to stand before you as a priest of His Church.  And in being brought back to Jesus and the Cross, I have been reminded what Martin Luther, the Protestant Reformer, once said: “Simul justus et peccator,” “I am a sinner, yet I am justified.”  But not only is that true for me, it is true for every single one of us.  All are justified freely by [God’s] grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus.”[6]  That is the message of the Cross.  That is the Good News for all of us.

So today, as we look to the Cross, we are being reminded that we are forgiven.  Because of Jesus’ sacrifice of Himself on the Cross, we are truly free—free from the shackles of sin and death!  Through the Cross, we are truly ransomed, healed, restored, and forgiven people.  There is nothing that can or will ever “be able to separate us from the love of God that is in Christ Jesus our Lord.”[7]  Today, Holy Cross Day, is a day of celebration of Christ’s victory on the Cross and of the new life that we have in Him because of it.

This brings us to our final point, one that I want to be sure that all of you know: there is nothing that you can ever do that will make God love you any less!  Nothing, absolutely nothing at all!  The Cross is the testament to how much God really loves you and to the outer limits He will go to be in relationship with you.  And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself.”   That “all” includes YOU.

It is my hope that you will have faith to trust God’s love and come to Him.  May all of us be open to experiencing the goodness and love of the Lord together.

In the Name of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.  Amen.         

[1] Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations contained herein are from The Holy Bible, New International Version ®, NIV ®, copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.™

[2] Known by Eastern Christians as the Church of the Resurrection.  This fourth century church contains within it, according to traditions dating from that time, the site of Jesus’ crucifixion at Calvary and the Empty Tomb.

[3] I Corinthians 1.18

[4] Pfatteicher, Philip H.  New Book of Festivals and Commemorations: A Proposed Common Calendar of Saints (Minneapolis, Minnesota: Fortress Press, 2008), 444.

[5] Romans 3.23

[6] Romans 3.24

[7] Romans 8.39

“Perfect Harmony” (September 4, 2016: Sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost–Proper 18C)

Posted in Sermons with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on September 5, 2016 by montgomerybrandt

This sermon was preached on September 4, 2016 at the 8:30am Rite II, 11:00am Rite II, and 6:00pm Rite I Eucharists at the Episcopal Church of the Ascension in Lafayette, Louisiana.

Collect: Grant us, O Lord, to trust in You with all our hearts; for, as You always resist the proud who confide in their own strength, so You never forsake those who make their boast of Your mercy; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with You and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Readings: Jeremiah 18.1-11; Psalm 139.1-5, 12-17; Philemon 1.1-21; Luke 14.25-33

“I appeal to you for my child Onesimus…If you consider me your partner, receive him as you would receive me.”—Philemon 1.10, 17[1]

In the Name of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.  Amen.

The date: November 11, 1936; the place: The Pennsylvania Hotel in New York City.  It was on that date and at that place that two white jazz musicians from Chicago, Benny Goodman, a clarinet player and the undisputed “King of Swing,” and Gene Krupa, an energetic and innovative drummer, appeared on a stage with two black musicians, Lionel Hampton, a vibraphonist also from Chicago, and Teddy Wilson, a piano player from Austin, Texas, for the first time as the Benny Goodman Quartet.  It was, for American jazz, total integration for the first time.  As recounted by Lionel Hampton in 1982, Goodman was later asked why he hired Hampton and Wilson to be in his band, to which Goodman replied, “You know one thing?  It takes the black keys and the white keys both to make perfect harmony.”[2]  Goodman did not see color in Hampton and Wilson, but rather musical colleagues and equals.  Wilson remained with Goodman until 1939 and Hampton until 1940, with them both launching out on their own and having successful music careers for the rest of their lives.

Saint Paul’s Letter to Philemon, today’s second lesson, is a book that we hear from only once every three years in the Sunday lectionary cycle.  As I was preparing today’s sermon, there were some commentaries I read that questioned Paul’s intent regarding his letter and labeled his language as being vague and not explicit.  On the contrary, I believe that Paul was both very clear and explicit regarding his expectations of Philemon concerning Onesimus and to prove that, a careful walk through of the text is needed.  Today’s sermon will, to the fullest extent, be an exegetical sermon.  But most importantly, as all sermons should do, will be highlighted and proclaimed the Good News.

Although the letter does not give the specific circumstances, Onesimus, a fugitive slave from Colossae, came into contact with Paul during the latter’s imprisonment in Rome.  It is speculated that Onesimus committed some sort of offence against his master, Philemon, back in Colossae and fled to Rome in an effort to avoid detection.  Paul and Onesimus made contact with each other and, in the process, Onesimus became a Christian.  Onesimus grew in faith and, as implied by Paul, became very helpful to him in spreading the Gospel.  Paul did not see Onesimus as a fugitive slave, but, rather, as one of God’s fellow workers, part of God’s field, God’s building.[3]

Philemon was a wealthy Christian from Colossae.  During Paul’s three-year ministry in Ephesus, about 100 miles away, from AD 52-55, Philemon heard the Gospel and was saved.  He began serving the cause of Christ in the Colossian community, opening his home to a group of Christians to meet and worship regularly.[4]  Already, we see two things in common between Philemon and Onesimus: 1) they both came to faith in Jesus Christ through Paul’s preaching and ministry, and 2) became very helpful to Paul in the sharing of the Gospel.  Just as he did Onesimus, Paul saw Philemon as a “beloved fellow worker.”  There was more that united Philemon and Onesimus than there was that divided them.

Although Paul wished that Onesimus could have stayed with him in Rome, he knew that Onesimus had to return to Colossae and face up to Philemon.  Jesus said, “If you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember that your brother has something against you, leave your gift there before the altar and go.  First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift.”[5]  Although slavery in New Testament times was not the same as what we think of in the historic American context, there was still a penalty for runaway slaves, if recaptured, to be flogged, or even killed.[6]  Paul knew the risk of sending Onesimus back to Philemon, but he also could not ignore Jesus’ directive for reconciliation.  He hoped that Philemon, being a Christian, would also be mindful of this directive and do what was right upon Onesimus’s return.  Hence the letter that we heard read several minutes ago.

Paul says to Philemon, “Though I am bold enough in Christ to command you to do what is required, yet for love’s sake I prefer to appeal to you.”  As ‘an apostle, not from men nor through man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father,”[7] Paul could have directly ordered Philemon to free Onesimus.  But he chose loving persuasion over coercive pressure.  Loving persuasion is what the Gospel does; it is what Jesus does.  Jesus does not force Himself upon us.  He wants our love for Him to be free of coercion.  When we say yes to Jesus and voluntarily submit to His will, we become changed from the inside out.  By appealing to Philemon in love, Paul hoped that his words would move Philemon to make a free-willed decision to extend mercy and forgiveness to the slave that wronged him.  And though it is clear that Philemon was the primary addressee, by also including as addressees “Apphia our sister and Archippus our fellow soldier, and the church in your house,” this made clear Paul’s intent for the letter to be read aloud in front of others, perhaps another “tactic” of appealing to Philemon to do the right thing.

But where Paul’s expectations of Philemon become, in my opinion, clear and direct is at verse 17: “If you consider me your partner, receive him as you would receive me.”  Paul put his personal relationship with Philemon right on the line in pleading for Onesimus.  Martin Luther, the Protestant Reformer, once said

What Christ has done with God the Father, that Saint Paul does also for Onesimus with Philemon.  For Christ emptied Himself of his rights and overcame the Father with love and humility, so that the Father had to put away his wrath and rights, and receive us in favor for the sake of Christ, who so earnestly advocates our cause and so heartily takes our part.  For we are all his Onesimus’s if we believe.[8]

And there is where we see the Good News.  Just like Onesimus, we all were once held captive—captive to sin and death.  Then Jesus came, sacrificing Himself for us, freeing us from our captivity.  Because of Jesus, we are free—free from the shackles of sin and death!  We are ransomed, healed, restored, and forgiven people!  Perfect Love lifted us out of our bondage.

What Paul said to the Galatians is true: ‘There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.”[9]  He pleaded with Philemon to accept Onesimus back “no longer as a bondservant but more than a bondservant, as a beloved brother,” recognizing his status as a new creation in Jesus and, thus, as His complete equal.  Likewise, we are all called to accept and recognize each other as equal one to another, because the sacrifice of Christ on the cross says that we are.

So what about Philemon and Onesimus?  Did Philemon accept him back?  Was Onesimus truly repentant of his offense?  Did Philemon forgive Onesimus?  Was all well there at the end?  Unfortunately, we do not know, but it is my hope that all was well.  I hope that Philemon took Paul’s counsel seriously and did the right thing.  I hope that the time that he and Onesimus spent apart—perhaps by God’s Providence—helped both of them to grow more mature in Christ to which Onesimus was repentant of his offense and asked for forgiveness, with Philemon accepting his apology, forgiving Onesimus, and freeing him from his bondage.  We do not know what happened between them, but we can only hope for the best.

This brings us to our closing point back to 1936 to that first Benny Goodman Quartet performance.  Benny Goodman refused to recognized racial segregation.  What he saw in Lionel Hampton and Teddy Wilson were two musicians just as skilled as he was and, together, they worked toward the same purpose and goal: making great music.  Seeing them on the stage at New York’s Pennsylvania Hotel represented the goodness of God’s Kingdom: no distinctions, no divisions, complete equality and cooperation with each other.  What a blessed and beautiful sight it must have been to behold.  May all the world get to such a place with the help of Jesus.

In the Name of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.  Amen.   

[1] Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations contained herein are from The ESV® Bible (The Holy Bible, English Standard Version®), copyright © 2001 by Crossway, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

[2] 1964MBrooks.  “A Tribute to Benny Goodman 1982.”  Recorded December 25, 1982.  YouTube video, 17:44.  Posted November 22, 2011.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6c7uOrKKzKo.

[3] I Corinthians 3.9

[4] “Introduction to the Letter of Paul to Philemon,” The ESV Study Bible (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2008), 2353.

[5] Matthew 5.23-24

[6] “Exposition of Philemon,” The Interpreter’s Bible (Volume XI: Philippians; Colossians; Thessalonians; Timothy, Titus; Philemon; Hebrews) (New York, New York: Abingdon Press, 1955), 561.

[7] Galatians 1.1

[8] “Luther on Philemon,” The Lutheran Study Bible (Saint Louis, Missouri: Concordia Publishing House, 2009), 2094.

[9] Galatians 3.28